Honeybee: cognitive map concept

       Database:    We were recording about 17 Million honeybees dance pattern in 2011 - 2017 in four different locations.
                    The dancer's waggle run is coding the vector to the food source with respect to the azimuth of the sun during the time course of the day.
                    The dance follower reads the waggle run pattern modulated by the Pendulum and stores the vector message in its cognitive map memory.
                    The vector message finds it's way into different parts of the memory by using the pendulum frequency as it's own address operator.
                    A fixed built in fourier network helps to address and compress the vector for the cognitive map memory. Using the same fourier network
                    in a reverse mode helps to rebuilt the time series of the original dance pattern which allows the recruit turn into a dancer itself.

        Recording methode:   The animal emanates electric fields recorded by a remote electrode. The voltage of the preamplifiers output gives a fraction of the bees voltage.
                  The frequency scale is limited to 3000 Hz of the 44Khz/24bit audio signal stored on harddrives. The Signal is digitally filtered for the low frequency response
                  to emphasize the abdomen movements.
movie 1   Signals from the bee's abdomen during a waggle run.
The animal emanates electric fields recorded by a remote electrode connected to an AC-preamplifier.

Signal trace from the 2 Hz - 44 khz AC-preamplifier (green)
The preamplifier's input is connected to the white wire of the shielded cable. The black wire is Shield and Ground.

Note: Distortion of the signal is caused by a varying
distance to the electrode and surrounding other bees.


 dance follower

dance follower

Transmission link:

The strength of all stimuly depends on the nearest line between the dancer's abdomen and the antenna of the dance followers. Odor, sound and ESF follow the 1/distance2 rule. This results in a steep gradient of the signal and causes a strong "1.Harmonic". Light reflexes from the surface of the abdomen are received in the fovia of the complex eyes.

 transmission bar
 vibrating octave bees ESF signal trace + sonogram all four stimulus modalities
are modulated by the


simultaneously in the

transmission link


        Note: The voltage scale reflects the preamplifiers output and gives a fraction of the bees voltage. The frequency scale is limited to 3000 Hz of the 44Khz/24bit audio
                  signal. The digitally filtered low frequency response is plotted on top of each sonogram to display and emphasize the abdomen movements. The sonograms
                  reveal the pronounced harmonics which enhance the redundancy of the base frequency.

        Vibrating "Octave" bees: Honeybees dancing for a rich food source like trees or even the high rewarding feeder in our experiments use their wings for whirring
                  additionally to the waggling of their abdomen. Now the hanging pendulum, the inverse pendelum and the wing vibrations effect the elasticity and forces of the
                  legs keeping the dancer in position on the frame. The frequency response from both pendula is now swinging from the lowest frequency to the highest
                  frequency which marks the "Octave" like a very strong "Vibrato" well known in string instruments. The fourier network resolves all three frequency                   components and stores the vector for rich food sources in different spaces of the cognitive map memory colocateted to the normal vector information.
 vibrating octave bees ESF signal trace + sonogram


"Octave" bees

        Beep and stop tones: Worker bees transmit sounds in the range of 200 to 500 Hz and a duration of 200 to 500 ms during the time course of the day even at night.
                  The mechanism of its production is unknown as well as its function in the social context is not properly explained.
                  Due to the higher frequency these sounds may be also a strong component of the communication by air velocity.
                  Again the pronounced harmonics enhance the redundancy of the base frequency.
 beep tones ESF signal trace + sonogram
beep and stop tones

of worker bees

        Downward and upward loops are coded differently.  Each waggle run is followed by a loop downwards or upwards. When the bee starts to waggle, the mean                  frequency is adjusted during the first 180 milliseconds. This is followed by a sustained waggling phase which mainly codes for the distance to the food source.                  The stop phase is affected by the bee's preparation for the next loop downwards or upwards. Because the bee is already turning its body axis, the pendulum                  mechanism causes the frequency to drop more sharply for a downward loop than for an upward loop.